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Margaret Anderson: An Older Adult with Limited Communication

Margaret Andersen is an 85-year-old woman with limited communication who demonstrates changes in behavior two weeks after entering a nursing care facility.

Mr. Smith: Chronic Pain in an HIV-infected Patient with a History of Substance Abuse

Mr. Smith is a 46 year-old male with a history of HIV, hepatitis C cirrhosis, and substance abuse, presenting with bilateral hip pain.

Nestor: 7-Year-Old Non-Verbal Boy with Apparent Pain

Nestor is a 7-year-old non-verbal developmentally disabled boy with pain on movement for six months.

Pain Assessment in Persons with Dementia

This is an overview of competencies of pain assessment specific to cognitively impaired older adults.