Pain Information

Institute of Medicine Report

In 2011, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a report regarding pain as a public health problem in the United States. The IOM recommended relieving pain become a national priority [9].

National Pain Strategy

In 2016, The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services outlined the nation’s first coordinated plan for reducing chronic pain in The National Pain Strategy (NPS). It was developed by a diverse team of experts from around the nation. The National Pain Strategy is a roadmap toward achieving a system of care in which all people receive appropriate, high quality and evidence-based care for pain [10].

Additional References Used In Module

  1. American Geriatrics Society 2012 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. American Geriatrics Society updated Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2012;60(4): 616-31. Available at
  2. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Monahan PO, Löwe B. Anxiety disorders in primary care: prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2007;146(f): 317-25. Available at
  3. Lin, P, Campbell, DG, Chaney EF, et al. The influence of patient preference on depression treatment inprimary care. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2005;30(2): 164-73
  4. Loeser, J. Concepts of pain. In: Stanton-Hicks M, Boas R. Chronic LowBack Pain. New York: Raven Press; 1982.p.145-8. Available at
  5. Staal JB, de Bie R, de Vet HCW, Hildebrandt J, Nelemans P. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2008; 3. Art. No. CD001824.10.1002/14CD001824.pub3. Available at
  6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Using acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs safely. Published March 3, 2013. Accessed August 19, 2013.
  7. Waddell G, Newton M, Henderson I, Somerville D, Main CJ. A Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) and the role of fear-avoidance beliefs in chronic low back pain and disability. Pain. 1993;52:157-68. Available at
  8. Editors Note: The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) [], funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a system of highly reliable, valid, flexible, precise, and responsive assessment tools that measure patient-reported health status. You can register and access pain-related assessment tools and statistics at


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