This model views the interaction among biological, psychological and sociocultural variables. This is not a complete listing of all the factors that may be considered in this model but some factors that may play a role in our case. These factors are not static – they are dynamic and can change over time. It is the interaction and consideration of these factors that is important in treating pain.
The following are questions about biological factors to consider that are involved in the pain experience:
- What is the gender of the individual: male or female?
- What other physical illnesses does the individual have or are in their family history?
- What mental or physical abilities or disabilities does an individual have?
- What genetic component may impact the individual? What stress response might the individual experience that might be perceived as a harmful event, threat or attack?
- How does medication affect the physiological or emotional aspect of an individual?
The following are questions about that influence individual’s pain report:
- How does the attitudes or beliefs of an Individual favor or disfavor toward a person, place, thing or event? These attitudes or beliefs may be positive or negative or both.
- What personal characteristics as seen in behavior patterns, cognition and emotion may impact the individual?
- What behavior does an individual demonstrate or not demonstrate as a response to stimuli in their environment?
- What emotion or feeling that can result in physical and psychological changes and may influence behavior?
- How does an individual cope using strategies to solve personal and interpersonal problems and may vary dependent on the stress, conflict or circumstance?
- How does the individual acquire learn or commit to memory new knowledge, behaviors, skills, values or preferences?
The following are questions about social factors that affect how an individual experiences pain:
- What social support does an individual have available that may include caring and assistance from others; this may be emotional, financial, informational, companionship, cultural support?
- What is the family background of the individual, which is a synthesis of family characteristics, behaviors, attitudes and beliefs for each individual?
- What is the cultural background of the individual, including general customs and beliefs of a group of people?
- What is the social status of the individual defined by position or rank of a person or group within the society?
- What is the economic status of an individual including economic or social status based on income, education, occupation or family’s income, education or income?
- What is the education level of an individual?