The following categories include optional additional learning resources related to phantom limb pain, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use, complementary treatments and veterans.

Click the link below each entry to access additional information. Note that material may be subject to individual copyright protections. It is included here for informational purposes only.


Anatomy and physiology of pain:

Gate theory of pain:

Nociceptive pain:

Neuropathic pain:

Pain sensitization:

Pain management in veterans:

Phantom limb pain mechanisms:

Trevelyan 2016: Perceptions of phantom limb pain…and its effect on quality of life:

Knotkova 2012: Current and future options for the management of phantom limb pain:

Pain Assessment Tools

Note that tools may be subject to individual copyright protections. They are included here for informational purposes only.

Unidimensional Pain Assessment Tools:

Numeric pain rating scale: %20Rating%20Scale%20Instructions.pdf

Faces scale:

Visual analog scale: cales.pdf#page=4

Verbal pain intensity scale: Scales.pdf#page=5

FLACC scale:

Multidimensional Pain Assessment Tools:

Brief pain inventory:

McGill pain questionnaire:

PADT: DocumentationTool.pdf

West Haven-Yale MPI:

PQRST Pain assessment

Substance Use

DSM-5 Criteria for Substance Use Disorders:

Naloxone: A Brief Overview:

Substance Abuse Assessment tools: CAGE-AID (adapted to include drugs):

Opioid Risk Tool (ORT):

NIDA Drug Use Screening Tool:

VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain: ext.pdf

Drug Abuse Screen Test:

NIDA Drug Use Screening Tool: Quick Screen:

Mental Health

Overview of PTSD:

Overview of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Nilamadhab 2011: Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder:

Overview of sleep apnea:

STOP BANG tool for sleep apnea: am/ame/guide/media/STOP%20BANG%20Questionnaire.pdf

Bloom 2009: Evidence-Based Recommendations for the Assessment and Management of Sleep Disorders

Lambiase 2014: Utility of actiwatch sleep monitor to assess waking movement

Complementary Treatments

Shekelle 2014: Evidence map of acupuncture

Young-Dae 2014: Acupuncture for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Goyata 2016: Effects from acupuncture in treating anxiety: integrative review

Chi-Chuan 2014: Successful treatment of phantom limb pain…in the traumatic amputee

Mirror therapy for phantom limb pain:

Mirror Therapy: Patient Selection Criteria:


VA Patient Aligned Care Team (PACT):

VA PACT Care Management Handbook:

Prevalence of PTSD in Veterans:

Sleep Problems in veterans with PTSD:

Gros 2015: Relations between Pain, PTSD Symptoms, and Substance Use in Veterans

Related Websites

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA):

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH):

National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR):

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA):

Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Systems (PROMIS):

Patient Aligned Care Team (PACT):

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