Acupuncture and Low Back Pain:

Manheimer E et al.  Meta-analysis: acupuncture for low back pain. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Apr 19;142(8):651-63.

Hutchinson AJ et al. The effectiveness of acupuncture in treating chronic non-specific low back pain: a systematic review of the literature. J Orthop Surg Res. 2012 Oct 30;7(1):36. [Epub ahead of print]

Kim K et al. Acupuncture for lumbar spinal stenosis: a systematic review BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12(Suppl 1):P320

Manheimer E. Acupuncture for peripheral joint osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD001977.

Additional resources on nociception:

Pain terminology:

American Pain Society:

International Association for the Study of Pain:

American Academy of Pain Medicine:

School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin:

FDA Drug Safety Communication: Rare cases of serious burns with the use of over-the-counter topical muscle and joint pain relievers | FDA

An excellent resource about non-conventional preparations is:

Agency for Health Care Policy and Research information on low back pain:

Patient Resources

Arthritis Foundation:

American Cancer Society:

American Chronic Pain Association:

National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization:

National Headache Foundation:

Comprehensive pain assessment:

For more information on comorbid depression and pain, review Bair et al. (2004) article:



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