Learning Objectives

This case is targeted towards:

  • Medical students in years 3 and 4.
  • Dental students in years 3 and 4.
  • Pharmacy students: pharmacotherapy seminar and clinical clerkship.
  • Nursing students in year 2 and masters level nursing programs.


Brigham and Women's Hospital

  • Antje Barreveld, M.D.
  • Robert Jamison, Ph.D.
  • Jennifer McSweeney, M.D.
  • Ajay Wasan, M.D., M.Sc.

Harvard School of Dental Medicine

  • Jeffry Shaefer, D.D.S., M.S., M.P.H.
  • Nicole Holland, D.D.S., M.S.
  • David Keight, B.D.S, F.D.S, R.C.S., D.M.D

Harvard Medical School

  • Erin Bettendorf
  • Julia Whelan

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

  • Michele Matthews, PharmD

Massachusetts General Hospital

  • Paul Arnstein, Ph.D., R.N.

Regis School of Nursing

  • Theresa Melnikas, R.N., D.N.P.


This curriculum resource was supported with funding from the NIH Pain Consortium, which approves the educational value of the information provided. The authors listed on this resource are responsible for its content, and questions may be directed to their Center of Excellence in Pain Education. The NIH Pain Consortium provides these evidence-based curriculum resources on pain management as a service to academic medical, dental, nursing, pharmacy, and other health professional schools. This resource is for educational purposes and is not intended as medical practice guidelines. Evidence based practices may have changed since the publication of the resource.

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